Dog Diseases


Disease Name:Campylobacter spp.
Agent: especially jejuni, sometimes coli. Gram negative, microaerophilic, curved rod. Some strain variation in pathogenicity. Non-pathogenic species also exist.
Clinical Signs and significance: Animals - Usually asymptomatic. Disease more frequently documented in dogs than cats: watery mucoid diarrhea, +/- blood. Systemic signs may be seen (fever, leukocytosis, inappetance, vomiting).  Disease usually lasts 3-7 days, occasionally may be chronic or intermittent. Uncommon sole cause of disease in cats, especially > 6 months old; look for concurrent infections or other problems.
Humans - Include abdominal pain, cramps, fever, chills, and diarrhea (which are frequently bloody).
Susceptible domestic species Cats, dogs, ferrets, rabbits, livestock, poultry and many others
Zoonotic? Yes. Most human cases acquired from undercooked meat but transmission from pets may also occur.
Prevalence Estimates from 1-6% of pet and shelter cats in several recent surveys in the U.S., up to 40-50% in some studies. Many studies have shown no association with diarrhea, but other sources have reported higher frequency in diarrheic animals.
Risk factors Age (< 6 months), stressors such as surgery.
Diagnostic aids:Stained smear: Insert moistened cotton swab 3-4 cm into rectum. Roll gently on slide. Air dry. Stain with diffquick. Neutrophils suggest bacterial infection (Salmonella or Campy). Gull forms suggest Campylobacter spp.Culture: Notify lab if campylobacter is suspected. Microareophilic culture required. Lab may suggest special transport media to enhance culture viability. Transport fresh sample promptly to lab to maximize results. Campylobacter is somewhat fragile; false negative results can occur if sample handling is compromised.
Test comments Non-pathogenic Campylobacter species may be seen on slide; lab may report results as culture negative in that case. Assorted spirochetes can look like gull forms.
Excreted in : Feces
Mode of transmission: Fecal-oral, food and water borne, fomites
Disinfection Routine disinfection is adequate
Incubation ~ 3-5 days
Post-recovery shedding Indefinite in untreated
Carrier state? Yes
Specific treatment Macrolides (erythromycin or azithromycin) usually drug of choice, treatment for three weeks recommended. Resistance is common to penicillins and trimethoprim. Culture and sensitivity may be required in persistent infections.
PPE required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Disease Name:Canine Distemper – Core Vaccine
Agent: Morbillivirus (family Paramyxoviridae; enveloped RNA)
Clinical Signs: Various: upper respiratory disease including purulent nasal discharge, pneumonia, dyspnea, vomiting, diarrhea, ocular problems and neurological difficulties.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs, ferrets, raccoons
Zoonotic? No
Diagnostic tests: IFA for viral antigen or inclusion bodies in cells from conjunctival scrape, urine sediment, buffy coat PCR of nasal or ocular discharge, respiratory mucosa or conjunctiva Serum IgM or rising serum IgG CSF antibody detection
Test sensitivity Fair to poor in acute disease, lousy in subacute or chronic disease Fair to good during acute respiratory phase of disease Good Good in acute encephalitic disease, otherwise poor
Test specificity Very good Good – false positive possible 1-3 weeks after vaccine; quantitative PCR can help distinguish Good except false positive may occur within 3 weeks of vaccination Good – antibody ratio can rule out blood contamination from traumatic collection
Test comments Lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia are common acutely. There is no really satisfactory test for diagnosing distemper antemortem.
Vaccine available? Yes; vaccination (on intake!!) is the cornerstone of distemper prevention in a shelter
Vaccine efficacy Excellent. Within hours of administration, vaccination can provide meaningful protection against severe disease and death, and complete protection can occur within days, in the absence of maternal interference. Puppies exposed four hours after vaccination were protected in one study. Recombinant vaccine provides better protection in the face of maternal antibodies (puppies less than 16 weeks).
Excreted in : All body excretions (feces, urine, etc.), but most abundant in respiratory secretions.
Mode of transmission: Highly contagious. Aerosol, droplet, direct contact spread most common. Fomite transmission over short time/distance.
Disinfection Routine disinfection is adequate. Susceptible to heat, drying and most common disinfectants.
Incubation Fever spike 3-6 days postinfection (may go unnoticed), clinical signs 1-4 weeks postinfection (longer incubation more common), CNS signs may appear up to three months later with or without preceding signs.
Post-recovery shedding Up to 120 days, but usually < 60 days, decreased with complete resolution of clinical signs; quarantine minimum of one month for all exposed dogs (includes dogs with partial protection) but exposed before full protection as they may still be infected and shed even without clinical signs.
Carrier state? No, but mild and inapparent infection common and important in propagation. Old dog encephalitis may represent recrudescence of latent disease, but dogs are not infectious in the interim.
PPE required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Control The most important factor in shelter decontamination is quarantine/removal of incubating and mildly/subclinically affected animals.
Animal Control agents: re wildlife handling, ensure no contact with clothing, and use separate equipment for wildlife vs dogs, DO NOT transport dogs and raccoons in same vehicle

H3N2 CIV FAQs Shelters and Rescues – Dr. Crawford, University of Florida.

Disease Name:Canine Influenza Virus (CIV)
Agent: RNA virus
Susceptible domestic species Dogs, H3N2 can infect cats but with low incidence; ferrets are also susceptible to H3N2
Zoonotic? No, but could be an emerging zoonotic in future.
Prevalence H3N8 – identified in early 2000’s in US, relatively low rate of incidence H3N2 – more prevalent in N. America, introduced to US in 2015 through import of dogs, first identified in Canada in late 2017
Risk factors Dogs of any breed, age or health status can be affected. Participating in group events or housed in communal facilities. Dogs in shelter and rescue groups are high risk group.
Clinical signs and significance Frequent coughing, sneezing, nasal/ocular discharge, decreased appetite, fever. Some dogs develop serious disease and pneumonia. Dogs can have subclinical infections with no clinical signs but still shed the virus.
Diagnostic aids: PCR on nasal swabs is recommended. Highest viral shedding will occur early in the course of the infection. After 7 days illness - to confirm viral shedding has stopped, need PCR tests, every 2 – 3 days apart until have 2 consecutive negative tests.
Test comments Serological testing can be performed but is of limited use clinically
Excreted in : Respiratory secretion (mucus and saliva, coughing)
Mode of transmission: Direct nose-to- nose contact poses the highest risk of transmission; aerosol transmission (up to 20 ft or more) and indirect transmission from contaminated fomites. Ideally infected dogs should be kept in an area with separate ventilation.
Disinfection Can survive for 8 to 12 hrs on clothing and hands and up to 24 hr in the environment with the right temperature (low temps) and humidity (high moisture). Inactivated by most commonly used disinfectants such as accelerated hydrogen peroxides (Prevail™ or Peroxigard Plus®) or potassium peroxymonosulfate (Virkon®, Trifectant®) Potentially contaminated items (eg. stethoscopes) must be cleaned and disinfected.
Incubation H3N2 = < 7 days. Virus shedding can occur 24 hours before clinical signs appear. H3N8 = normally 2 – 5 days
Post-recovery shedding H3N2 - Shedding or contagious period can be up to 3 – 4 weeks; quarantine all exposed dogs for 2 weeks; isolate all sick dogs for 4 weeks. (Unless you choose to confirm cessation of shedding – see Diagnostic Aids above) H3N8 - quarantine dogs for 7 days
Carrier state? No
Specific treatment Supportive care; antibiotics if secondary infection occurs
Control All preventive measures apply; proper intake, immediate vaccination, separation from adoptable dogs. PPE – protective outerwear covering entire body (Hazmat suit) includes Canine Influenza reference sheet v.03/2018 Page 2 disposable gloves, boots or disposable Agri-boots (not shoe covers) and hair cover similar to bouffant cap or hood of the suit). proper disinfection. When canine influenza strikes, virtually 100% dogs are affected, and approximately 20% show no signs, therefore all exposed dogs must be considered an infection risk
Disease Name:Kennel Cough – Core Vaccine
Agent: Many different agents responsible including Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parinfluenza virus (CpiV, enveloped RNA paramyxovirus), canine adenovirus 2 (CAV-2, unenveloped DNA Virus), Strep. Zooepidemicus, etc.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs, Cats - Less common for cats to suffer clinical disease, but they may be carriers. In some cases Bordetella infection may contribute to URI or pneumonia in young kittens.
Zoonotic? Yes (albeit rare); most common in immune-compromised people or those with preexisting respiratory disease.
Clinical signs and significance Animals – Usually causes harsh cough with or without retching, without signs of systemic illness. Cases complicated by primary or secondary infection with other agents may present with cough, sneezing, nasal or ocular discharge, and systemic signs such as fever and anorexia. May progress to pneumonia in severe cases.
Humans – Respiratory infection is most common.
Diagnostic tests: Culture or PCR of ocular, nasal or oropharyngeal swab for Bordetella. PCR for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus available from some labs. Necropsy samples are definitive.
Test sensitivity Good – improved by careful sample handling.
Test specificity Good – However, Bordetella may be isolated from healthy dogs. Specificity of culture is improved by culturing transtracheal or endotracheal wash fluid rather than oral or nasal swabs.
Test comments Diagnosis almost always made based on clinical signs, rule-out canine distemper in severe cases.
Vaccine available? Yes – for Bordetella, CpiV, and CAV-2 (3-way intranasal plus injectable modified live core vaccine [MLV] is highly recommended).
Vaccine efficacy Moderate: single intranasal dose protective within 3-5 days and lasts 12-13 months, does not completely prevent infection but reduces severity of signs. MLV IN vaccine may cause mild signs including green nasal discharge – this should not be confused with distemper.
Excreted in : Primarily ocular, nasal and oral secretions.
Mode of transmission: Highly contagious. Transmitted by aerosolized microdroplets, fomites over moderate time/distance, direct contact.
Disinfection THOROUGH cleaning followed by accelerated hydrogen peroxides (Prevail or Peroxigard Plus), or potassium peroxymonosulfate (Virkon or Trifectant) or bleach 1:32 This disinfection is needed especially for CAV-2. No way to fully decontaminate unbleachable materials/organic matter such as grass or dirt yards to fully inactivate. CAV-2 probably a minor player in most cases of kennel cough.
Incubation 3 -10 days
Post-recovery shedding Bordetella may be shed up to 3 months. Viral agents shed < 2 weeks. Infectious risk is greatly reduced when dogs no longer have discharge or coughing.
Carrier state? Yes, for Bordetella. Cats may have subclinical infections and transmit disease to dogs.
PPE Required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Control Crowding and stress = greatest risk factor, e.g. small kennels, large numbers with high contact rate, poor air quality, aerosolized cleaning agents, loud noise, lack of regular schedule, etc. Try to decrease length of stay.
Vaccinate all dogs on intake.
Vaccinate all dogs that have not been vaccinated in the past 14 days.
Disease Name:Parvo (Canine Parvoviral Enteritis) – Core Vaccine
Agent: Canine parvovirus (unenveloped DNA virus)
Clinical Signs: Vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia and dehydration
Susceptible domestic species Dogs and cats
Zoonotic? No
Diagnostic tests:ELISA test for fecal antigenCBC: leukopenia-lymphopeniaIn-house necropsy: enteritis, thickening of distal duodenum and jejunum
Test sensitivity (false negatives)Good in first 5-7 days of disease (estimates range from 69-95.8%)Moderate – more common in severe diseaseGood during acute disease
Test specificity (false positives)Very good (estimates range from 93-100%, caution in recent vaccinatesModerate – may also be seen with Canine Distemper, and other diseasesModerate – mild cases indistinguishable from enteritis of other causes
Test commentsFalse positive possible (though uncommon) 5-12 days after MLV vaccine. Usually weak if present. Histopathology performed by commercial lab is gold standard
Vaccine available? Yes; modified live subcutaneous. Vaccinate immediately on intake, can confer protection within 3-5 days. Vaccination is the cornerstone of parvovirus prevention in shelters and communities.
Vaccine efficacy Excellent in dogs >16 weeks (maternal antibody interference possible  in dogs < 12-16 weeks).
Excreted in : Feces – shedding often precedes clinical signs by a couple of days, therefore underlines importance of PPE/quarantine from other dogs at intake and first few days, and ongoing rounds and monitoring.
Mode of transmission: Readily spread due to extreme environmental resistance  – direct contact, fomites, mechanically spread by rodents and insects, can be aerosolized by high-pressure sprayers
Disinfection THOROUGH cleaning followed by accelerated hydrogen peroxides (Prevail or Peroxigard Plus), or potassium peroxymonosulfate (Virkon or Trifectant), or bleach 1:32 No way to fully decontaminate unbleachable materials/organic matter such as grass or dirt yards. May persist for months or years,especially in dark, cool environments.
Incubation 3 -14 days (usually 4 -7 days, occasionally up to 21 days). Therefore, 14 days quarantine for exposed unvaccinated dogs.
Post-recovery shedding Usually < 2 weeks
Carrier state? No, but mild or unapparent infection is common, especially in adults.
PPE required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Disease Name:Coccidia (Isospora spp)
Agent: Some strain variation in pathogenicity
Clinical signs and significance Animals - Most often subclinical. Difficult to recreate disease in SPF kittens > 4 weeks of age.  May cause diarrhea +/- weight loss, dehydration, mucous or blood. Death occurs rarely.
Humans - Watery diarrhea, headache, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever. These symptoms may lead to weight loss and dehydration.
Susceptible domestic species Isospora species are species-specific. Feline isospora do not infect dogs, and vice versa.
Zoonotic? Yes
Prevalence Estimates from < 5% to > 60% depending on population sampled. No significant association with diarrhea reported.
Risk factors Age (kittens and puppies), co-infections, stress including transportation, change in ownership, weaning
Diagnostic aids: Fecal floatation
Test comments Consider signs such as history, signalment, and number of oocysts when assessing significance of oocysts in feces. Clinical signs may precede shedding, leading to false negative floatation results acutely. Coprophagy may lead to presence of oocysts from other species.
Excreted in : Feces
Mode of transmission: Fecal-oral, very effectively spread by fomites
Disinfection Resistant to many disinfectants. High heat cleaning/scalding water.
Incubation Prepatent period: 3-11 days
Post-recovery shedding 1-9 weeks
Carrier state? Yes
Specific treatment Marquis Paste. Sulfadimethoxine, trimethoprim-sulfa.
PPE Required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Control Change litter box daily (as it takes 8-36 hours to become infectious in feces) and administer prophylactic deworming at intake.
Disease Name:Giardiasis
Agent: Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia)
Infective forms: Exists as intestinal trophozoite form and as an infective cyst
Susceptible domestic species Cats, dogs, and most domestic species
Zoonotic? Humans are much more likely to be infected with Giardia from a contaminated water source than from an infected pet (a.k.a. Beaver fever). However, it is known that the same species of Giardia can infect domestic animals and humans, so precautions should be taken when handling infected animals.
Clinical Signs & Symptoms Animals - Diarrhea, chronic weight loss, and pale, malodorous feces. Even animals with no obvious symptoms can carry Giardia.
Human - Some people experience no symptoms, typical symptoms include mild or severe diarrhea, abdominal pain and occasional weight loss. Fever is rarely present.
Diagnostic tests:Direct smearZinc flotation with centrifugationFlotation without centrifugationIdexx ELISA SNAP test
Test sensitivity~ 50% on diarrheic feces~75% on 3 samples over 5 daysPoor (probably <10%)85-90%
Test specificityMust distinguish from T. foetus in catsGood, if able to distinguish from coccidia, yeast, etc. 95-99%
Test commentsMust be fresh sampleCyst shedding is intermittent – must sample repeatedlyTest is essentially not recommended for giardiaCan test + for up to 2 weeks following + treatment
Other tests: There are several other tests available from laboratories. The ProspectT microplate ELISA and FA tests are good; please call your lab for details on the tests and on their specificities/sensitivities. (The ProspectT RAPID assay is less sensitive.)
Prevalence in shelters: Cats: 10-30% (up to 100% in some catteries)
Dogs: 20-40% (up to 100% in some kennels)
Vaccine available? Yes, however it is not recommended as it has not been proven to be effective.
Excreted in : Feces
Mode of transmission: Fecal-oral either directly or indirectly, e.g. fecal contaminated water or food.
Disinfection Cysts can exist for months in a moist/cool environment. Drying of kennels also helps in between disinfection. Does not survive freezing. Mechanical removal through routine cleaning and disinfection is most effective.
Incubation Average prepatent period is 8 days in dogs, 10 days in cats. Onset of disease (if it occurs) may precede cyst shedding by 1-2 days.
Post-recovery shedding Shedding may still occur even after disease is treated. It is advisable to retest animal at the end of treatment and then again several weeks later.
Carrier state? YES. Most infections in otherwise healthy adult animals are asymptomatic. Self cure is possible as is chronic shedding.
Treatment &prevention of outbreaks: Fenbendazole (panacur); Febental/pyrantel/praziquantel (Drontal Plus); Metronidazole (less effective and resistance is possible). Reinfection is common so decontamination of the environment in shelters is paramount.
PPE required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Control Bathing can also help decrease cyst load found on fur.
Disease Name:Hookworm
Agent: Ancyclostoma caninum, A. braziliense, A. tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala A. caninum (dogs), A. braziliense (dogs & cats), A. tubaeforme (cats), Uncinaria stenocephala (dogs and cats). Ancyclostoma caninum is the most likely to cause disease.
Clinical signs Animals - Can cause black, tarry diarrhea and severe blood loss (anemia) which can be fatal in puppies. Adult dogs that are sickly and malnourished are also commonly affected, but infections in adults are typically asymptomatic. Can also occasionally cause footpad dermatitis in adult dogs from very contaminated environments.
Humans – Depends on what organs the larvae migrate to. Some worms can penetrate more than one region of the body.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs and (less commonly) cats.
Prevalence Very common and widespread in dogs. One study showed that 20% of shelter dogs were shedding hookworm eggs. Infection is most common in puppies during the first few weeks of life, but infection is also common in adults. A. caninum is the most common.
Zoonotic? Yes. Can cause cutaneous larval migrans (migration through the skin, also called “creeping eruption”) in humans.
Diagnostic tests: Fecal float
Test sensitivity (false negatives) Moderate. False negatives are not uncommon.  Heavily-infected animals may show clinical signs before eggs are shed in the feces. In low-level infections, eggs may be shed intermittently.
Test specificity (false positive) False positives uncommon
Vaccine available? No
Excreted in : Feces, milk (dogs)
Mode of transmission: Fecal-oral, transmammary (during nursing – dogs only), percutaneous (skin penetration by larvae), ingestion of animals (insects, rodents) that have ingested hookworm eggs.
Disinfection Eggs are less resistant than those of roundworms. Most hookworm eggs are destroyed by freezing, drying, and temperatures over 38˚C. Bleach (three cups per gallon of water) will kill hookworm larvae on cement. Contamination of the environment can be reduced by prophylactic treatment of susceptible animals and by removing feces daily (since eggs can become infective in just two days).
Incubation 10-14 days, but can vary with age, stress, malnutrition, and other disease. Puppies frequently become ill at 1-3 weeks of age.
Post-recovery shedding Yes. Most animals that are shedding are asymptomatic.
Carrier state? Yes, asymptomatic animals may shed hookworm eggs for prolonged periods.
Prepatent period: Time between infection and shedding of eggs = 2-4 weeks (shorter if eggs are ingested, longer if infection acquired via larval penetration of skin). Eggs become infective 2-8 days after they are shed.
Treatment All puppies should be treated for hookworms every two weeks starting at 1-2 weeks of age until they are 12 weeks old. Pregnant and nursing bitches should also be treated to minimize transmission to their offspring. Prophylactic treatment of all shelter dogs and cats is suggested. Severely malnourished animals may require re-treatment. Effective treatments include the following drugs: Pyrantel pamoate (Strongid®, pyrantel is also an ingredient in the following products: Drontal®, Drontal Plus®, HeartGard Plus®), Fenbendazole (Panacur®), Febantel (Milbemycin, Interceptor®, an ingredient in Sentinel®).
PPE Required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Disease Name:Leptospirosis
Agent: Leptospirosis spp multiple serovars
Clinical signs Animals - Asymptomatic, severe cases can cause vomiting, depression, anorexia, fever, ocular and nasal discharge/coughing, kidney and liver disease, severe depression and death.
Humans - Prolonged fever, chills, weakness, abdominal and muscle pain, and sometimes jaundice and anemia. Fatality is low but the disease is especially dangerous for the elderly, people with compromised immune systems, and people with kidney disease.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs with a history of hunting, or exposure to livestock/wildlife, are at increased risk. Although leptospirosis is uncommon in dogs, disease in dogs and humans appears to be on the increase in recent years.
Zoonotic? Yes
Diagnostic tests: Serology PCR test has been developed and may be available from selected labs
Test sensitivity (false negatives) May be negative in first week to 10 days of disease so suspect cases should be treated as positive until confirmed otherwise. Recent vaccination for leptospirosis may cause false positive results on serology.
Test specificity (false positive) Rare. Cannot effectively test in first 7-10 days of infection.  
Vaccine available? yes
Vaccine efficacy Good in dogs over 10 weeks of age. Annual revaccination required. Vaccine helps to prevent disease severity but may not completely prevent disease.
Excreted in : Infected animal urine
Mode of transmission: Urine, most common route of infection is through contact with water or soil contaminated by the urine of infected livestock or rodents.
Disinfection Routine disinfectants effective, especially with sources of urine. Rodent control essential.
Post-recovery shedding Dogs can shed bacteria intermittently in urine for months even after recovery, direct transmission from urine or aborted tissue may occur and is increased in crowded kennel situations.
Carrier state? No
Treatment Extended antibiotic therapy
PPE Required Gloves, gowns, impermeable shoe covers (urine, blood) and mask.
Disease Name:Lyme Disease
Agent: Borrelia burgdorferi
Clinical signs Animals - Fever, lethargy, decreased appetite, sudden or severe lameness and joint swelling.
Humans - Rash progressing to fever, flu-like symptoms, polyarthritis, meningitis, myocarditis and uveitis.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs and cats
Zoonotic? Yes
Diagnostic tests: Serology C6 and Western Blot
Test sensitivity (false negatives)    
Test specificity (false positive) Does not differentiate between antibodies from natural exposure and vaccination Great
Test comments Also cross reactive to other non-causative organisms. Distinguishes between natural exposure and vaccination-induced antibodies.
Vaccine available? Yes
Vaccine efficacy Good but vaccine is still new to the market.
Excreted in : Not applicable- do not survive as free living organisms outside host.
Mode of transmission: Tick bites
Disinfection Not applicable in shelter. Do not survive as free living organisms outside host.
Incubation Seroconversion within 3-6 weeks post exposure in about 5% infected dogs.
Post-recovery shedding Do not survive as free-living organisms outside host.
Carrier state? No. Dogs are incidental hosts.
Treatment Doxycycline
PPE Required Gloves, gowns, shoe covers
Disease Name:Rabies
Agent: Rhabdovirdae, genus Lyssavirus
Clinical signs Animals - Two presentations of the disease: furious form or dumb/paralytic form. Furious form is characterized by aggression, disorientation, anxiety and roaming. Paralytic form is characterized by progressive paralysis, often starting with the throat muscles leading to the inability to swallow. Atypical presentation is possible, and rabies should be kept in mind as a differential for any abnormal behavior or neurological disease of unknown cause.
Humans - Starts as flu-like symptoms (weakness, fatigue, lack of appetite, headache, fever). Many victims report tingling at the exposure site. Symptoms progress to hyperactivity, disorientation, hallucinations and convulsions. The disease slowly and painfully paralyzes its victims. At the final stage, they typically lapse into a coma and die from respiratory arrest.
Susceptible domestic species Most warm-blooded animals can be infected, including bats, skunks, raccoons, foxes and coyotes.
Zoonotic? Yes
Diagnostic tests: Virus is present in the saliva, diagnosis is by postmortem immunofluorescent antibody testing of the brain.
Vaccine available? Yes
Vaccine efficacy Vaccinated dogs and cats have been reported to develop rabies.
Excreted in : Saliva, blood
Mode of transmission: Bite or ingestion of an infected animal
Disinfection Saliva generally needs to enter the tissues for infection to occur, so a bite that breaks the skin is by far the most common means of transmission. May also be contracted through a scratch. Standard disinfectants effective
Incubation Will show clinical signs within 10 days of the virus present in the saliva. Three weeks to three months, but can be as long as several years.
Post-recovery shedding None
Carrier state? No
Treatment Once clinical signs have become apparent, rabies is virtually 100% fatal in humans
PPE Required Gloves, gown, goggles and/or full face mask, impermeable shoe covers, HAZMAT suit.
Control Wildlife and domestic species must not be transported in the same vehicle to avoid the transmission of diseases and parasites. Animal Control agents: re wildlife handling, ensure no contact with clothing, use separate equipment for wildlife vs dogs, and ensure vehicle is cleaned and disinfected between transporting different species.
Disease Name:Ringworm (dermatophytosis)
Agent: Microsporum canis (other species can infect dogs and cats, but M. canis by far most common in shelters.)
Clinical signs Animals - Red scaling, alopecic and crusting non-itchy lesions usually with broken hairs commonly found on ears, face, paws but can be found anywhere on the body.
Humans – Ring-shaped areas of scaling and hair loss, with or without redness, crusting and itching.
Susceptible domestic species Cats, dogs, ferrets, others. Persian cats and Yorkshire Terriers are extra susceptible.
Zoonotic? Yes
Diagnostic tests:Woods lamp (must be real Woods lamp, electric preferred to battery operated)Fungal culturePCR
Test sensitivity (false negatives)Good(> 80%)Good but takes up to two weeks 
Test specificity (false positives)Good (a few other fungal species and some drugs and other substances can fluoresce if spilled on the fur)Good (see comments) but must wait full two weeks before confirming negative 
Test commentsMaximum accuracy when performed correctly (allow lamp to warm up 5-10 minutes, perform in completely dark room, hold over suspect lesion 3-5 minutes)Fungal culture is quite accurate when performed correctly. Microscopic identification is required for all cultures, regardless of presence or absence of color change on DTM. Some species, notably Trichophyton, can be more difficult to culture.
Vaccine available? Vaccine no longer available; previously available vaccine was not effective to prevent infection.
Vaccine efficacy N/A
Mode of transmission: Present on hair, very readily shed in environment, extremely contagious, may be carried on hair and dust long distances on fomites and through heating and ventilation ducts.
Disinfection Highly resistant, can persist for over a year. Currently, Accel at a 1:40 dilution with a five minute wet contact time or high-concentration bleach (1:20 dilution) are the only two effective disinfectants for ringworm. Commercial steam cleaning for carpets. Some environments can’t be decontaminated. Potassium peroxymonosulfate has been shown to be ineffective for ringworm decontamination. (For specifics about treatment, see Dermatophyte Treatment in a Nutshell.)
Incubation 1-3 weeks
Post-recovery shedding Cats can remain infectious for several weeks following clinical recovery.
Carrier state? True carrier state uncommon, but cats can act as mechanical carriers without developing clinical signs themselves.
PPE required Gloves, gown, shoe covers
Control Clean all shedded hairs with Swiffer rather than sweeping
Disease Name:Roundworms, Ascaridiasis
Agent: Toxacara canis (dogs), Toxacara cati (cats), Toxascaris leonina (dogs and cats). Toxacara spp. are more common than Toxascaris.
Clinical signs Animals - Most commonly asymptomatic. In puppies and kittens, there may be vomiting, diarrhea, painful potbellies, poor weight gain, poor haircoat and coughing. Death can occur in severe cases (more common in puppies than kittens).
Humans - Depends on what organs the larvae migrate to. Some worms can penetrate more than one region of the body.
Prevalence: Common and widespread. Infection is most common in puppies and kittens in the first few months of life and in pregnant and nursing females. The vast majority of puppies and kittens are infected, and should be routinely treated, regardless of fecal float results. One study showed that 14.5% of shelter dogs were shedding T. canis eggs. T. cati is the most common worm in cats. Roundworms are more common in adult cats than in adult dogs.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs and cats. There are many other species of roundworms that infect other species, but the species listed above are limited to dogs and cats. Baylisascaris is a roundworm of raccoons which occasionally infects dogs, and has serious zoonotic potential.
Zoonotic? Yes. Can cause visceral and ocular larval migrans in humans (migration through the internal organs or eyes, which may lead to organ damage and blindness). Baylisascaris can cause visceral, ocular, or fatal neural larval migrans (migration in the brain) in humans.
Diagnostic tests: Fecal float (identification of eggs).
Test sensitivity (false –ve): False negatives common, especially in puppies and kittens. Puppies and kittens should be treated routinely, regardless of fecal exam results.
Test specificity (false +ves): False positives uncommon
Vaccine available? No
Excreted in : Feces, milk. Adult dogs are much less likely to shed eggs than puppies. Adult dogs are also less likely than adult cats to shed roundworm eggs.
Mode of transmission: Fecal-oral, transplacental (from mother during pregnancy) in puppies, transmammary (via nursing) in kittens and puppies, ingestion of animals (e.g. rodents) that have ingested roundworm eggs.
Disinfection Eggs are extremely resistant to disinfection. They can persist in soil for years. Contamination of the environment can be reduced by prophylactic treatment of susceptible animals and by removing feces immediately (since it takes eggs one week to become infective).
Incubation Most puppies are infected at birth, kittens become infected within 1-3 weeks of birth.
Prepatent period: Prepatent period (amount of time between infection and shedding of eggs) = three weeks. For some roundworm species, the prepatent period is longer (8-10 weeks).
Carrier state? Yes. Asymptomatic animals can shed eggs for prolonged periods, but this is more common in young cats and dogs, and much less common in adult dogs.
Treatment Effective treatments include the following medications. Fenbendazole (Panacur®) contains febantel, which is also an ingredient in Drontal Plus®. Pyrantel pamoate (Strongid®) contains pyrantel, and is also an ingredient in Drontal®, Drontal Plus® and HeartGard Plus®.High-dose ivermectin products include Milbemycin Interceptor®, an ingredient in Sentinel®, Selamectin (Revolution® - in cats only).
All puppies and kittens should be treated for roundworms every 2-3 weeks starting at 2-3 weeks of age until they are 12-16 weeks old. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also be treated to minimize transmission to their offspring.Prophylactic treatment of all Shelter dogs and cats is suggested.
PPE Required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers
Disease Name:Salmonellosis
Agent: Some strain variation in pathogenicity
Clinical signs and significance Animals - Asymptomatic. Can cause fever, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea with or without blood and mucus. In severe cases leading to septicemia and death, these cases can resemble panleukopenia or parvo. Cats that prey on birds may develop song bird fever causing severe often bloody diarrhea following ingestion of infected birds
Humans - Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, can cause severe and occasionally fatal disease in very young children and immune-compromised individuals.
Susceptible domestic species Reptiles, dogs, cats, birds, and livestock.
Zoonotic? Yes
Diagnostic tests: Fecal culture  
Test sensitivity (false negatives) High  
Test specificity (false positives) High  
Test Comments Intermittent shedding is possible so three negative fecal cultures at two-week intervals are required to call an animal free of salmonella.
Vaccine available? No
Vaccine efficacy N/A
Excreted in : Feces
Mode of transmission: Transmission between animals by fecal-oral spread directly, in contaminated water, food or on fomites such as food dishes and grooming implements. Free roaming cats and dogs are at increased risk for exposure. Spread from infected humans to animals is possible. Transmission to humans by fecal-oral route from surfaces, food and water contaminated by feces, or handling of infected animals, especially reptiles. Most common source is food borne but infected animals are significant risk.
Disinfection Commonly used disinfectants. Routine hygiene and sanitation. Hand washing after handling reptiles or any animal with diarrhea is mandatory.
Incubation 8-72 hours in people
Post-recovery shedding Can persist as long as six weeks after clinical recovery. Up to 90% of reptiles are asymptomatic, chronic carriers.
Carrier state? Yes
Treatment Can be self limiting, may require antibiotics, fluid and electrolyte replacement.
PPE Required Gloves, gowns and impermeable shoe covers
Disease Name:Sarcoptic mange (aka scabies)
Agent: Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (burrowing mite)
Clinical signs and significance Animals: Persistent scratching and crusting especially around the ears and elbows.
Humans: Excessive itching all over the body, mostly at night, and a uniform red bumpy rash. Blisters on the palms and on the soles of the feet. Small insect bites that resemble pimples, and the collection of a few bites in a particular area resembling an “S” shape. These bites are often found in the nooks and crevices of the body. A secondary infection develops on the surface of the skin.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs, may transiently infect cats
Zoonotic? Yes
Diagnostic tests: Skin scrape
Test sensitivity (false negatives) Poor – about 50% false negatives. Mites less likely to be detected with chronic disease, severe pruritus, or history of treatment. Sensitivity improved by taking multiple scrapings.
Test specificity (false positives) Excellent with careful species identification
Test Comments Diagnosis may be made on clinical signs of intensely pruritic skin disease with characteristic distribution and response to treatment, even if negative skin scrapings are obtained.
Vaccine available? No
Vaccine efficacy N/A
Excreted in : In fur and immediate environment.
Mode of transmission: Direct contact, fomite transmission. Mites live off host up to six days at room temperature, longer (up to 21 days) in moist, cool environments.
Disinfection Environments that are not easily mechanically cleaned and disinfected (home-like environments) should be treated with an environmental pesticide.
Incubation Dogs may show signs within a few days of infection.
Post-recovery shedding Live mites may remain after resolution of pruritus – continue treatment for two weeks past remission, at least 4-6 weeks.
Carrier state? Yes. All dogs in prolonged direct contact (house or kennel mates) with affected dog should be treated, as asymptomatic carriers exist. Humans may find the rash breaks out between two days to four weeks after infestation.
Treatment Revolution given topically every two weeks; Advantage Multi and Ivermectin.
PPE Required Gloves, gown
Disease Name:Whipworm
Agent: Trichuis vulpis
Clinical signs and significance Most infections are asymptomatic, but heavy infections can cause mucoid diarrhea with flecks of blood.   Weight loss, dehydration, anemia and death can occur in extreme cases.
Susceptible domestic species Dogs, rarely cats.  In a national fecal parasite survey, whipworms were reported from 14.3% of shelter dogs. 
Zoonotic? No
Diagnostic tests: Fecal float (identification of eggs).  Eggs are barrel- or lemon-shaped, yellow-brown, with prominent bipolar end plugs and a smooth shell.
Test sensitivity (false negatives) Moderate.  False negatives are not uncommon, Because of the long prepatent period, heavily-infected animals may show clinical signs before eggs are shed in the feces.  In low-level infections, eggs may be shed intermittently.
Test specificity (false positives) Excellent.  False positives are very uncommon.  However, Trichuris eggs must be distinguished from Capillarid eggs, which are slightly smaller and have a rough surface.
Vaccine available? No
Vaccine efficacy N/A
Excreted in : Feces
Mode of transmission: Fecal-oral
Disinfection Very difficult.  Eggs are very resistant to disinfection, especially in soil.  Eggs are also resistant to drying, temperature extremes, and sunlight.   Reducing exposure of dogs to embryonated eggs in the environment is best achieved by prompt removal of feces from yards and other environments where dogs defecate.
Incubation Prepatent period (time from infection to shedding) = 3 months Eggs become infective one month after they are shed.   Because the prepatent period is so long, shelter-acquired infections may not become manifest until after adoption. Dogs adopted from a known whipworm-contaminated shelter should be routinely tested and/or treated up to three months after adoption.
Post-recovery shedding Yes.  Most animals that are shedding are asymptomatic.
Effective Dewormers: Fenbendazole (Panacur), Milbemycin (Interceptor or Sentinel), Febental (available as an ingredient in Drontal Plus).
Because of the long period of maturation, deworming must be repeated three times at monthly intervals.
Note:  Pyrantel is NOT effective against whipworms. 
PPE Required Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers