Specific Disease Protocols

 

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • Isospora are species-specific and not zoonotic. Dogs cannot be infected with feline isospora and vice versa
  • They are small protozoans (single-celled organisms) that affect the intestinal tracts of dogs and cats, mainly puppies and kittens
  • Transmitted through fecal-oral route, very effectively spread by fomites
  • Incubation period: 3-11 days
  • Shedding period: 1-9 weeks
  • Carrier State: Yes
  • Resistant to many disinfectants; high heat cleaning (steaming) is effective
  • It only takes feces 8-36 hours to become infectious, therefore, frequent litter box changes are essential
  • Risk factors include: young age, stress( including transportation, change in ownership, weaning) , parasitic co-infection, nursing mothers, and/or immunocompromised/sick animals
  • We prophylactically treat all incoming animals on intake with a dose of Marquis Paste® and repeat this dose 2 weeks later

General Policy:

Treatment of Coccidia infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian.

If you see or suspect the following signs:

  • Diarrhea +/- mucous or blood
  • Weight loss
  • Dehydration
  • Depression
  • Lethargy

Follow these next steps:

Image

Diagnosis:

When to test: Any animal exhibiting signs of diarrhea longer than 24hrs, that is also exhibiting any of the other clinical signs of Coccidiosis (inappetance, weight loss, dehydration, depression, lethargy)

Who performs the test: External diagnostic facility (Antech or Idexx)

How to test: Fecal flotation

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases ideally in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. not in a bathroom). If strict isolation is unavailable, appropriate separation from the remainder of the population is mandatory
  • Quarantine of exposed animals is not necessary, however, close observation of these animals for signs of diarrhea is imperative. This observation period should not prevent any animal from continuing through the shelter process

How Cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness. For cats, spot cleaning is always preferred unless the cage is heavily soiled. Litter boxes must be checked and changed out frequently throughout the day (every couple hours). Any stool in kennels, must be picked up promptly and disposed of appropriately, instead of hosing it down, a method that risks spreading infectious material all over the walls of the kennel. All blankets, toys, bedding etc must be discarded
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room housing symptomatic animals undergoing treatment
  • 4. High heat cleaning/scalding water or 10% ammonia solution is reportedly effective in removing cysts from the environment
  • 5. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as PrevailTM, PeroxigardTMPlus, Virkon®
  • 6. Use mechanical scrubbing to help loosen the eggs from the surface, enabling the surface to be cleaned and disinfected properly
  • 7. ONE FULL CLEANING (cleaned, disinfected, dried) is required before reusing the kennel
  • 8. Steam drying is required before reusing any soft furnishings ie. Carpet covered cat towers

**NOTE: A thorough mechanical cleaning, scrubbing, rinsing, steaming (soft furnishings only) and drying is essential to remove Coccidia from the environment as it is resistant to almost all cleaning and disinfecting agents.

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treat only symptomatic animals. This should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate and as long as there is appropriate separation (separate room isolated from other animals is preferred but not mandatory) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing

Treatment:

  • Prophylactically treat all animals on intake with Marquis Paste® dose and repeat 2 weeks later.
  • Any animal showing symptoms and/or a positive diagnostic test, will receive additional doses as needed, based on clinical signs/fecal exams and in consultation with a Veterinarian or Shelter Health and Wellness
  • At the end of treatment - Bathing (with an antibacterial shampoo such as Pure Oxygen Ultra ShampooTM) the animal or wiping down with an anti-bacterial wipe (such as Prevail TMRTU) is absolutely essential as it will reduce the number of infective cysts found on the animals fur and prevent re-infection

**NOTE: Rechecking a fecal sample in 2 weeks is recommended as some animals may remain positive but are asymptomatic. These animals should continue through the shelter process.

Monitoring:

  • ACA, RVT or senior animal care member is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian

Adoption:

  • Animals will be placed up for adoption after treatment has concluded and symptoms have resolved
  • REMINDER: Before being placed for adoption, bathing (with an antibacterial shampoo such as Pure Oxygen Ultra ShampooTM) the animal or wiping down with an anti-bacterial wipe (such as PrevailTMRTU) is absolutely essential as it will reduce the infective cyst load found on the animal’s fur and prevent re-infection

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis (http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/intestinal-parasite-control-guidelines)

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • ZOONOTIC (Humans most likely to be infected from contaminated water sources)
  • It is a microscopic protozoan parasite that affects the intestinal tract and liver
  • Transmitted through direct or indirect (ie. Fecal contaminated water/food)fecal-oral route
  • Incubation Period: Average 8 (dogs) – 10 (cats) days, with a range of 5 -16 days
  • Shedding Period: Can occur even after treated. Chronic shedding with sporadic peaks is common.
  • Cysts can exist for months in a moist/cool environment so drying is the most important step
  • Mechanical scrubbing with a detergent is key to reducing cyst numbers
  • Carrier state: YES. Most infections in healthy, adult animals are asymptomatic
  • We prophylactically treat all incoming animals on intake with a 5 day course of Panacur®

**NOTE: Total eradication is unrealistic. Focus should be on reducing the cyst load and control of spread rather than elimination.

General Policy:

Treatment of Giardia infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian.

If you see or suspect the following signs:

  • Diarrhea
  • Chronic weight loss
  • Pale, malodorous feces

Follow these next steps:

Image

Diagnosis:

When to test: Any animal exhibiting signs of diarrhea longer than 24hrs. in an otherwise healthy looking animal

Who performs the test: External diagnostic facility

How to test: ELISA test at external diagnostic facility (ie. Antech or Idexx)

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases ideally in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. not in a bathroom). If strict isolation is unavailable, appropriate separation from the remainder of the population is mandatory.
  • Quarantine of exposed animals is not necessary, however, close observation of these animals for signs of diarrhea is imperative. This observation period should not prevent any animal from continuing through the shelter process.
  • Work with a Veterinarian knowledgeable in shelter medicine to develop a plan for other animals in the facility

How Cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness. For cats, spot cleaning is always preferred unless the cage is heavily soiled. Litter boxes must be checked and changed out frequently throughout the day (every couple hours)
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room housing symptomatic animals undergoing treatment
  • 4. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as PrevailTM, PeroxigardTMPlus, Virkon®
  • 5. Dishwashers should be used in place of mechanical scrubbing, when at all possible
  • 6. ONE FULL CLEANING (cleaned, disinfected, dried) is required before reusing the kennel

**NOTE: A thorough mechanical cleaning, scrubbing, rinsing and drying is essential to decrease the cyst load as Giardia is resistant to almost all cleaning and disinfecting agents.

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treat only symptomatic animals. This should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate and as long as there is appropriate separation (separate room isolated from other animals is preferred but not mandatory) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing

Treatment:

  • Prophylactically treat all animals on intake with a 5 day Panacur®
  • Any animal showing symptoms and/or a positive diagnostic test, will receive a 10 day course of Panacur® in combo with 5 day course of Metronidazole (under veterinary care)
  • At the end of treatment - Bathing (with an antibacterial shampoo such as Pure Oxygen Ultra shampooTM) the animal or wiping down with an anti-bacterial wipe (such as PrevailTMRTU) is absolutely essential as it will reduce the cyst load found on the animals fur

**NOTE: Re-testing post treatment is not recommended as some animals may remain positive but are asymptomatic. These animals should continue through the shelter process.

In the human medical field, there is an acceptance that Giardia is just there, and the risk of over-treating and causing the development of resistance to drugs is a worse outcome. The veterinary medical community has been over-treating giardia. If infection does not necessarily equate with disease, and most are not zoonotic, then it’s very expensive and unnecessary.

Monitoring:

  • ACA, RVT or senior animal care member is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian

Adoption:

  • Animals will be placed up for adoption after treatment has concluded and symptoms have resolved
  • REMINDER: Before being placed for adoption, bathing (with an antibacterial shampoo such as Pure Oxygen Ultra shampooTM) the animal or wiping down with an anti-bacterial wipe (such as PrevailTMRTU) is absolutely essential as it will reduce the cyst load found on the animal’s fur
  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis (http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/intestinal-parasite-control-guidelines)

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • ZOONOTIC
  • Ringworm is a fungal infection affecting the skin, hair and occasionally nails of animals (and people)
  • Microsporum canis is the most common species of concern to shelters
  • Cats are at a greater risk than dogs (esp. long-haired cats). Young ( <1yr.) and geriatric are at the highest risk
  • Most common location of lesions is the face, ears, paws and tail, but can be found anywhere on the body
  • Most often spread by spores, either through direct contact or a contaminated environment
  • Very durable and can remain in the environment for months and even up to a year, therefore the mechanical removal of spores from the environment is the most important step
  • Incubation Period: 1 – 3 weeks
  • Shedding Period: Several weeks post-recovery with spores
  • No true carrier state, but the animal can act as a mechanical carrier by carrying spores around (like dust) on their coat from the environment
  • No vaccination
  • Every animal should be examined using a Wood's Lamp upon intake

Remember: True infection only occurs when skin microtrauma allows spores to invade the skin and hair to establish growth.

General Policy:

Treatment of Ringworm infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian.

If you see or suspect any of the following signs:

  • Wood’s Lamp Positive (Refer to Shelter Health Pro website for proper Procedures)
  • Suspect skin lesions

Follow these next steps:

Image

Diagnosis:

When to test: When you get a positive Wood’s Lamp reading AND/OR have identified suspicious looking skin lesions.

Who performs the test: Collection method performed by trained animal centre staff or veterinary staff. Send sample(s) out to a diagnostic lab - Antech (fungal culture, still considered the Gold Standard of testing)/ Idexx (PCR testing)

How to test: PCR testing can be useful if performed early in the occurrence of the disease. A positive PCR test initially is valid with the presence of a lesion and continued testing would use the DTM Fungal culture to monitor the progress (success) of treatment. Subsequent PCR tests may not be of value as they may only be detecting residual genetic material and not the current state of fungal growth. Progress of the disease and success of treatment should only be done with consecutive DTM Fungal culture performed every 7 days for a minimum total of 14 days (ie. Day 1 = First sample (harvest sample before treatment), Day 8 = Second Sample (before treatment if that is a treatment day).

Collect spores for DTM Fungal culture using the “toothbrush-collection” method –

  • 1. Brush animal thoroughly with a new toothbrush; brushing any lesions LAST. Make sure to follow all the steps contained in: Refer to “Collecting a Ringworm Sample: Tip Sheet”
  • 2. Place toothbrush in a double sealed Ziploc® bag with animals ID and send off to Antech

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. Not in a bathroom)
    If no isolation room is available, isolate separately at a Vet Hospital
  • Quarantine exposed animals for 21 days. Animals that have been exposed, should have a culture collected at Day 1, and treated on the same schedule as the suspect animal(s).
  • Additional quarantine may be needed to achieve 2 consecutive negative cultures for suspected cases
  • If neither isolation, quarantine, nor transfer to a Vet facility are an option, the only other humane alternative is euthanasia
  • Work with a Veterinarian knowledgeable in shelter medicine to develop a plan for other animals in the facility

How cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal and for entering any isolation or quarantine rooms – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers and a surgical hair cap.In addition, any employee with long hair must have it tied back. Wipe any exposed area of scrubs not protected by gown, gloves or impermeable shoe covers with PrevailTM wipe or paper towel with PrevailTM applied before leaving area
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness. For cats, spot cleaning is always preferred unless the cage is heavily soiled. Using PrevailTM is PREFERRED - with a 10 min. contact time - or bleach (1:20 – add 1.5 cups bleach to 1 gallon of water) **NOTE: Bleach must not be used in the presence of any animals ie. While the animal is in its cage
  • 3. Swiffer surfaces in the room and floor when first entering room for the day to pick up any shed hairs. Do not sweep with a broom.
  • 4. Following housing a ringworm animal, clean and disinfect the cage with PrevailTM (10 min. contact time) or 1:20 Bleach (10 min. contact time) for at least two consecutive applications (air drying between) before using the cage for another animal
  • 5. At the end of quarantine, change all air filters from affected rooms

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treatment of Ringworm infected animals should only be undertaken in a shelter if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian.
  • Other options could include off-site veterinary clinic or transfer to another shelter with sufficient facilities.
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate, there is appropriate isolation (each isolation room should be species specific) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing.

Treatment:

  • Treat all animals in both Isolation and Quarantine rooms topically with Pure Oxygen Ultra shampooTM
    • Pure Oxygen UltraTM shampoo is preferred to use to treat the animal for either exposed or quarantine cases. It should be diluted with water to a concentration of 1 part shampoo to 20 parts water (1:20 dilution). The animal should be combed or gently brushed first. Be careful not to damage the skin as microtrauma predisposes the animal to skin infection. Apply to the animal’s coat to the point of run off and allow to air dry. Keep very small animals or very young animals warm. Apply twice weekly or every 4 days. Either clean and disinfect combs and brushes in the same area using PrevailTM disinfectant or transport to cleaning area in a sealed plastic bag. Use care when cleaning combs and brushes not to disperse the hair and debris on the comb/brush. The product can be used in pregnant and nursing cats and is okay to use in kittens > 2 – 3 weeks old.
    • If Lime Sulfur must be used:
      - Use 8% concentration.
      - Okay to use in pregnant and nursing cats
      - Okay to use in kittens > 2 – 3 weeks old
      - Consider using pesticide sprayer for application to animal, using a facecloth around its face, nose and ears
      - Do not pre-wet the animal
  • In addition, systemic treatment with oral itraconizole (if approved by Veterinarian) for all animals that are positive
  • Wipe any recovered animals down with an PrevailTM RTU disinfectant wipe, before going home, to remove any possible spores lingering on its coat

Monitoring:

  • ACA or RVT is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation
  • The Animal Centre Manager, RVT or Senior Animal Care member is responsible for scheduling veterinary rechecks

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising Veterinarian.

Adoption:

  • Suspect animals can be placed back up for adoption after 2 consecutive, negative cultures.

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

Tips:

  • If high concentration bleach must be used as a disinfectant, you must have good ventilation in combination with a fan
  • Clipping is often un-necessary in short and medium haired cats, and may worsen lesions through microtrauma and mechanical spread of spores, however, clipping may be useful in long-haired cats whose coats simply become un-manageable after topical treatment. A #10 blade should be used
  • Heating and cooling vents should be vacuumed and disinfected at least weekly. Furnace filters should be changed at the end of the quarantine period
  • Dishes & other washable items can be run through a dishwasher provided water temperature reaches at least 43.3°C (110o F)
  • Bedding should be disposed of daily during treatment. Bedding must be placed in sealed bags before leaving the room. Any toys (ie. Scratching posts) that cannot be washed should be discarded

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis (http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/ringworm-dermatophytosis)

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • ZOONOTIC
  • Burrowing mite causing persistent scratching and crusting especially around the ears and elbows
  • Transmitted through direct contact, fomite transmission possible but uncommon
  • Dogs may transiently infect cats
  • Incubation Period: Dogs may show signs within a few days of infection
  • Shedding Period: Live mites may remain after resolution of pruritis- continue treatment for 2 weeks past remission, at least 4-6 weeks
  • Mites live off host up to 6 days at room temperature, longer (up to 21 days) in moist, cool environments
  • Carrier state: YES. All dogs in prolonged direct contact (house or kennel mates) with affected dogs should be treated, as asymptomatic carriers exist

General Policy:

Treatment of Sarcoptic Mange infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian.

If you see or suspect the following signs:

  • Intense scratching
  • Rash
  • Reddened, crusty skin
  • Hair loss typically affecting the ears, face, neck, feet, elbows, legs, and abdomen

Follow these next steps:

Image

Diagnosis:

When to test: Any animal exhibiting characteristic clinical signs

Who performs the test: External diagnostic facility

How to test: Skin Scraping- a definitive diagnosis is made by demonstration of mites on skin scraping. However, negative scrapings are common in dogs. Multiple scrapings should be performed, and sarcoptic mange suspected in any dog with characteristic clinical signs even in the absence of a positive scraping. Skin scrapings are usually positive in cats

Test comments: Diagnosis may be made on clinical signs of intensely pruritic skin disease with characteristic distribution and response to treatment, even if negative skin scrapings are obtained

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases ideally in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. not in a bathroom). If strict isolation is unavailable, appropriate separation from the remainder of the population is mandatory
  • Quarantine of exposed animals is not necessary, however, direct contact between dogs must be prevented.
  • Because of the possibility of human infection and environmental contamination, infested animals should not be housed in adoption areas or adopted until treatment has been completed and a cure has been microscopically confirmed.

How Cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness. For cats, spot cleaning is always preferred unless the cage is heavily soiled
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room housing symptomatic animals undergoing treatment
  • 4. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as PrevailTM, PeroxigardTMPlus, Virkon®
  • 5. Dishwashers should be used in place of mechanical scrubbing, when at all possible
  • 6. ONE FULL CLEANING (cleaned, disinfected, dried) is required before reusing the kennel. Environments that are not easily mechanically cleaned and disinfected should be treated with an environmental flea control product

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treat symptomatic animals as well as any animals that have had direct contact with the infected animal (ie. co-housed). This should only be undertaken in a n animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate and as long as there is appropriate separation (separate room isolated from other animals is preferred but not mandatory) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing

Treatment:

  • Any animal showing symptoms and/or a positive diagnostic test, will receive a treatment plan as per VCPR

Monitoring:

  • ACA, RVT or senior animal care member is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian

Adoption:

  • Animals will be placed up for adoption after treatment has concluded and symptoms have resolved
  • REMINDER: Before being placed for adoption, bathing the animal with an antibacterial shampoo (such as Pure Oxygen UltraTM shampoo) to eliminate crustiness is required

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • Morbillivirus (family Paramyxoviridae; enveloped RNA)
  • Highly contagious. Aerosol, droplet, direct contact most common. Fomite transmission over short time/distance
  • Clinical signs: various- upper respiratory disease including purulent nasal discharge, pneumonia, dyspnea, vomiting, diarrhea, ocular problems, and neurological difficulties
  • Dogs, ferrets and raccoons are susceptible species
  • Incubation Period: Fever spike (3-6 days post infection), clinical signs 1-4 weeks post infection, CNS signs may appear up to 3 months later with or without preceding signs
  • Shedding Period: Up to 120 days, but usually <60 days
  • Carrier state: No, but mild and non-apparent infection are common and important in propagation.
  • Routine disinfection is adequate; susceptible to heat, drying, and most common disinfectants
  • Wildlife are susceptible to and can transmit CDV to dogs. Proper disinfection of transporting enclosures must be done after every use and avoid transporting wildlife and dogs in the same vehicles when possible. If not possible , ensure dogs can’t be exposed to bodily fluids from a wild animal!
  • Vaccination on intake is the cornerstone of distemper prevention in a shelter!

General Policy:

Treatment of Canine Distemper infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian.

If you see or suspect the following signs:

Upper respiratory disease including

  • Purulent nasal discharge
  • Pneumonia
  • Dyspnea
  • Vomiting/diarrhea
  • Ocular problems
  • Neurological signs

Follow these next steps:

Image

Diagnosis:

When to test: Any animal exhibiting characteristic clinical signs. Clinical signs of upper or lower respiratory infection and gastrointestinal disease are non-specific; a diagnosis of distemper should not be made based on these signs alone. Clinical signs that are more suggestive of distemper but that are seen with less frequency include neurological signs, ocular signs and dermatological signs.

Who performs the test: External diagnostic facility

How to test:

  • IFA for viral antigen or inclusion bodies in cells from conjunctional scrape, urine sediment, buffy coat
  • PCR of nasal or ocular discharge, respiratory mucosa or conjunctiva
  • Serum IgM or rising serum IgG
  • CSF antibody detection

Test comments: Lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia are common acutely. There is no satisfactory test for diagnosing distemper antemortem.

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases ideally in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. not in a bathroom). If strict isolation is unavailable, appropriate separation from the remainder of the population is mandatory
  • Work with a Veterinarian knowledgeable in shelter medicine to develop a plan for other dogs in the facility

How Cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room housing symptomatic animals undergoing treatment
  • 4. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as PrevailTM, PeroxigardTMPlus, Virkon®
  • 5. Dishwashers should be used in place of mechanical scrubbing, when at all possible
  • 6. TWO FULL CLEANING (cleaned, disinfected, dried) is required before reusing the kennel

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treat symptomatic animals, by managing the symptoms and secondary infections created due to the virus. There is no specific treatment for distemper. This should only be undertaken in a shelter if sufficient facilities exist to effectively separate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate and as long as there is appropriate separation (separate room isolated from other animals is preferred but not mandatory) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing

Treatment:

  • Treatment needs to be done under Veterinary Supervision
  • Re-vaccinate all dogs that have not been vaccinated in the last 14 days
  • Vaccination on Intake is the cornerstone of distemper prevention in an animal centre!

Monitoring:

  • ACA, RVT or senior animal care member is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian

Adoption:

  • Animals will be placed up for adoption after treatment has concluded and symptoms have resolved
  • Although uncommon, adopters should be warned that neurological signs could develop up to 3 months after infection

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy
  • Do not transport dogs and raccoons in the same vehicle

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/canine-distemper-cdv

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • Also known as Canine URI, Infectious Tracheobronchitis or Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex
  • ZOONOTIC (Most common in immune-compromised people)
  • Can be caused by several viral pathogens: Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, Coronavirus, Herpesvirus or Bacterial pathogens: Bordetella, Mycoplasma, or Streptococcus zooepidemicus
  • Most common bacteria associated with kennel cough is Bordetella and is transmissible to cats
  • Highly contagious
  • Spread mainly through direct contact, aerosolized microdroplets and by fomites
  • Inactivated by routine disinfection (oxidizing agents)
  • Incubation period: 3 – 10 days
  • Post- Recovery Shedding Period: Bordetella up to 3 months. Other viral agents < 2wks
  • Carrier state: Yes, for Bordetella
  • We vaccinate all dogs on intake against Bordetella, Parainfluenza and Adenovirus 2 with a 3-way intranasal vaccine. Parainfluenza and Adeno-2 are also in our MLV core vaccine (DA2PP)

General Policy:

Treatment of CIRDC infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian.

If you see or suspect the following signs:

  • Coughing and/or
  • Green/yellow nasal discharge and/or
  • Bilateral green or yellow ocular discharge with no other obvious cause

NOTE: The classical presentation of kennel cough is a bright, alert, otherwise healthy acting dog with a harsh, honking cough. Any dog with the above signs, also showing signs of systemic disease (ie. Fever, loss of appetite, dehydration, vomiting, depression) should be seen by a Vet immediately, as this could indicate a more serious disease, such as distemper.

Follow these next steps:

Image

Diagnosis:

When to test: Any dog showing signs of disease should be immediately looked at by a Veterinarian

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. Not in a bathroom)
    • -If no isolation room is available, isolate separately at a Vet Hospital
  • Quarantine exposed dogs for 14 days after treatment begins
  • If neither isolation nor quarantine are an option, the only other humane alternative is euthanasia.
  • Work with a Veterinarian knowledgeable in shelter medicine to develop a plan for other dogs in the facility.

How Cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers. A face mask must be worn for suspected or confirmed cases of Bordetella spp. for as long as the dog is infectious
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room identified as a quarantine room
  • 4. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as PrevailTM, PeroxigardTMPlus, Trifectant or Virkon®
  • 5. Dishwashers should be used in place of mechanical scrubbing, when at all possible.
  • 6. ONE FULL CLEANING (cleaned, disinfected, dried) is required before reusing the kennel between animals

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treatment of CIRDC infected animals should only be undertaken in a shelter if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian
  • Other options could include off-site veterinary clinic or transfer to another animal centres with sufficient facilities
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate and as long as there is appropriate isolation (separate room isolated from different species) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing.

Treatment:

  • Treatment needs to be done under veterinary supervision
  • Re-vaccinate all exposed dogs in the shelter population that have not been vaccinated in the last 14 days. (Eg.- all exposed dogs would include all dogs housed in the same area as the dog being treated.)
  • Supportive care (including broad spectrum antibiotics for secondary infections, mild cough suppressants and fluid therapy if necessary).

Monitoring:

  • ACA or RVT is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation
  • The Animal Centre Manager, RVT or Senior Animal Care member is responsible for scheduling veterinary rechecks

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian.

Adoption:

  • Recovered dogs will be placed back up for adoption after being successfully isolated for 2 weeks
  • Exposed dogs will be up for adoption after being successfully quarantined for 2 weeks
  • Continue vaccinating puppies following the normal vaccination schedule

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis (http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/canine-infectious-respiratory-disease-complex-a-k-a-kennel-cough)

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • CPV is a highly contagious unenveloped virus, durable in nature, and capable of producing severe/life threatening disease in dogs. Young puppies often die without aggressive treatment.
  • Spread mainly by contaminated feces, but can also spread by fomites, vectors and can be aerosolized by power washers. The virus can also live on the dog’s hair coat and serve as a means of transmission long after dogs have recovered, therefore bathing with an antibacterial shampoo is important.
  • Incubation Period: Average 4 – 6 days (could be up to 10 – 14 days)
  • Shedding Period: 2 -3 days post-exposure and up to 2 wks post-recovery
  • No carrier state
  • We vaccinate all dogs on intake against CPV (part of the DA2PP Core vaccine)
    Adults: Revaccinate once in 2 – 3 weeks, if still with us in the shelter.
    Puppies: Begin at 5 - 6 weeks of age and revaccinate every 14 days until 18 weeks old.
    MLV can protect within 3 – 5 days (in absence of maternal antibody interference)

General Policy:

Treatment of CPV infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian.

If you see or suspect the following signs:

  • More common in puppies under 6 months of age
  • Often have mild to severe diarrhea (often bloody and foul smelling)
  • Dehydration
  • Lethargy
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever

Follow these next steps:

Image

When to Test:

  • 1. Any dog with diarrhea or vomiting that is also exhibiting signs of systemic disease
  • 2. Any dog that has had a known exposure to parvo within the preceding 14 days that then develops diarrhea
  • 3. Except as noted above, do not test dogs that have diarrhea but are bright, alert, active, eating or drinking normally

Who performs the test: Veterinary medical staff or Animal Centre staff trained in use of the test

How to test: In-House fecal ELISA tests (ie. IDEXX SNAP® test)

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. Not in a bathroom)
    • -If no isolation room is available, isolate separately at a Vet Hospital
  • Quarantine exposed dogs for 14 days
  • If neither isolation nor quarantine are an option, the only other humane alternative is euthanasia
  • Work with a Veterinarian knowledgeable in shelter medicine to develop a plan for other dogs in the facility

How Cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (Gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room identified as a quarantine room.
  • 4. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as, PrevailTM, PeroxigardTMPlus, Trifectant (Virkon®)
  • 5. Outdoor cement runs can be cleaned with a detergent solution and then disinfected using an oxidizing agent
  • 6. Gravel areas can be raked up and disinfected using an oxidizing agent – you can try this but there are no guarantees that it will completely disinfect the area
  • 7. Carpets should be steam-cleaned (temp. over 75°C inactivates parvo)
  • 8. Dishwashers should be used in place of mechanical scrubbing, when at all possible
  • 9. Two consecutive cleanings (VERY thoroughly cleaned, disinfected, dried) within a short period of time (ie. 24hrs) is sufficient, prior to re-use of kennel

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Tips:

  • Can persist in the environment for months or years (in dark, wet areas). No way to fully decontaminate dirt and grass areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treatment of CPV infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian
  • Other options could include off-site veterinary clinic or transfer to another animal centre with sufficient facilities
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate and as long as there is appropriate isolation (separate room isolated from different species) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing

Treatment:

  • Treatment needs to be done under veterinary supervision
  • Re-vaccinate all dogs that have not been vaccinated in the last 14 days
  • Supportive care (including broad spectrum antibiotics for secondary infections and deworming, fluid therapy if necessary)
  • Bathe with Pure Oxygen UltraTM shampoo to remove virus particles from the animals coat before being placed back out in adoptions. Wear protective clothing to prevent fomite transmission during the bathing

Monitoring:

  • ACA or RVT is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation.
  • The Animal Centre Manager, RVT or Senior Animal Care member is responsible for scheduling veterinary rechecks

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian

Adoption:

  • Recovered dogs will be placed back up for adoption after they have IDEXX SNAP® tested negative, have been bathed and successfully quarantined for 2 weeks
  • Exposed dogs will be up for adoption after being successfully quarantined for 2 weeks and bathed
  • Continue vaccinating puppies following the normal vaccination schedule

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis (http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/canine-parvovirus-cpv)

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • Also known as feline distemper – caused by feline parvovirus
  • Panleukopenia virus causes vomiting, diarrhea, and can cause sudden death in cats.
  • The virus is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route (including through exposure to objects/clothing/hands contaminated with virus from feces).
  • It is very durable unless inactivated by an effective disinfectant, and can persist in the environment for months or even years.
  • Kittens are at highest risk for this disease, and adult cats with current vaccinations are at very low risk.
  • Incubation Period: Usually 5 – 7 days (Generally less than 14)
  • Shedding Period: 2 – 3 days post-exposure
  • No carrier state
  • We vaccinate all cats on intake against Panleukopenia (part of the MLV FVRCP core vaccine)
    Adults: Revaccinate once in 2 – 3 weeks, if still with us in the shelter.
    Kittens: begin at 5 - 6 weeks of age and revaccinate every 14 days until 18 weeks old.

MLV vaccination may cause a weak false positive parvo test within about 5-12 days after vaccination.

General Policy:

Treatment of FPV infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian.

If you see or suspect any of the following signs:

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Sudden death/found dead in cage (especially suspicious in adolescent to adult cats with or without concurrent URI)

Follow these next steps:

Image

When to test:

  • 1. Any cat with diarrhea or vomiting that is also exhibiting signs of systemic disease
  • 2. Any cat that has had a known exposure to panleukopenia within the preceding 14 days that then develops diarrhea
  • 3. Except as noted above, do not test cats that have diarrhea but are bright, alert, active, eating or drinking normally

Who performs the test: Veterinary medical staff or Animal Centre staff trained in use of the test

How to test: In-House fecal ELISA tests (ie. IDEXX SNAP® test)

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. Not in a bathroom)
    • -If no isolation room is available, isolate separately at a Vet Hospital
  • Quarantine exposed cats for 14 days
  • If neither isolation nor quarantine are an option, the only other humane alternative is euthanasia.
  • Work with a Veterinarian knowledgeable in shelter medicine to develop a plan for other cats in the facility

How cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness. Spot cleaning is always preferred unless the cage is heavily soiled
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (Gloves gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room identified as a quarantine room.
  • 4. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as Trifectant, Virkon®, PrevailTM, PeroxigardTMPlus or Butcher’s Blend
  • 5. Two consecutive cleanings (cleaned, disinfected, dried) within a short period of time (ie. 24hrs) is sufficient, prior to re-use of cage

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Tips:

  • FPV is an extremely contagious parvo virus among cats, in which kittens are most severely affected
  • It can destroy white blood cells, which makes the cats susceptible to secondary infections
  • In utero infections do occur, potentially leading to the birth of kittens with neurological conditions

Which animals to treat:

  • Treatment of FPV infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staffing resources (time, skill level) are adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. These animals must be examined by a Veterinarian and have their treatment plan prescribed by the Veterinarian
  • Other options could include off-site veterinary clinic or transfer to another shelter with sufficient facilities
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate, there is appropriate isolation (separate room isolated from different species) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing

Treatment:

  • Treatment needs to be done under veterinary supervision
  • Re-vaccinate all cats that have not been vaccinated in the last 14 days
  • Supportive care (including broad spectrum antibiotics for secondary infections and deworming, fluid therapy if necessary)

Monitoring:

  • ACA or RVT is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation
  • The Animal Centre Manager, RVT or Senior Animal Care member is responsible for scheduling veterinary rechecks

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian

Adoption:

  • Recovered cats will be placed back up for adoption after they have SNAP tested negative and successfully quarantined for 2 weeks.
  • Exposed cats will be up for adoption after being successfully quarantined for 2 weeks.
  • Continue vaccinating kittens following the normal vaccination schedule.

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis (http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/feline-panleukopenia)

For a printable version of this disease protocol, click here

Basic Disease Information:

  • URI can be caused by several pathogens: Calicivirus, Herpesvirus, Chlamydophila felis, Mycoplasma or Bordetella
  • Calicivirus and Herpesvirus are the two pathogens that account for 80 – 90% of all cases (mostly Herpesvirus)
  • Spread mainly by fomites and direct contact
  • Incubation Period: 2 – 14 days
  • Shedding Period: Some shed for 2 – 3 weeks post-recovery, and some shed life long
  • We vaccinate all cats on intake against Calici and Herpes as part of our MLV core vaccine (FVRCP)
  • We vaccinate all cats on intake against Calici and Herpes as part of our MLV core vaccine (FVRCP)
    Adults: Revaccinate once in 2 – 3 weeks (preferably after 2 weeks) if still with us in the shelter.
    Kittens: begin at 5 - 6 weeks of age and revaccinate every 14 days until 18 weeks old. MLV can protect within 3-5 days (in absence of maternal antibody interference)

General Policy:

Treatment of URI infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staff resources (time, skill level) is adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian.

If you see or suspect the following signs:

  • Sneezing
  • Runny eyes
  • Ocular and/or nasal discharge
  • Lethargy
  • Oral ulcers (Calici)
  • Fever, depression, loss of appetite, eyes ulcers (Herpes)

Follow these next steps:

Image

Diagnosis:

How to test: Generally based on clinical signs

Where Housed:

  • Isolate all positive cases in a separate room used only for this purpose (ie. Not in a bathroom)
    • -If no isolation room is available, isolate separately at a Vet Hospital
  • Quarantine exposed cats for 14 days
  • If neither isolation nor quarantine are an option, the only other humane alternative is euthanasia
  • Work with a Veterinarian knowledgeable in shelter medicine to develop a plan for other cats in the facility

How Cleaned:

  • 1. Don proper PPE for ANYONE coming in contact with a suspected animal or entering isolation – disposable gloves, disposable gown, impermeable shoe covers
  • 2. Continue with your Animal Centre’s cleaning protocol as approved by the Department of Shelter Health & Wellness. Spot cleaning is always preferred unless the cage is heavily soiled
  • 3. Staff must wear full PPE (gloves, gown, impermeable shoe covers) in any room identified as a quarantine room
  • 4. Disinfect using (whichever is your normal disinfecting agent):
    Oxidizing Agents: Such as PrevailTM, Trifectant, Virkon®, PeroxigardTMPlus, or Butcher’s Blend
  • 5. Dishwashers should be used in place of mechanical scrubbing, when at all possible.
  • 6.ONE FULL CLEANING (cleaned, disinfected, dried) is required prior to re-use of cage

** As a reminder where staff is responsible for cleaning multiple housing units, the sequence they should be cleaned is: From clean to dirty,

  • 1. Adoptable kittens/puppies
  • 2. Adoptable adult animals
  • 3. Stray/Quarantine kittens/puppies
  • 4. Stray/Quarantine adult animals
  • 5. Isolation areas

Which animals to treat:

  • Treatment of URI infected animals should only be undertaken in an animal centre if sufficient facilities exist to isolate the patient such that the rest of the population is not put at risk, and staff resources (time, skill level) is adequate to ensure humane and appropriate care. The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian
  • Other options could include off-site veterinary clinic or transfer to another shelter with sufficient facilities
  • All animals should be treated, as long as they are a good adoption candidate and as long as there is appropriate isolation (separate room isolated from different species) and adequate resources to support treatment and housing

Treatment:

  • The treatment plan will be determined by the VCPR (Veterinarian Client Patient Relationship) between the facility and their regular veterinarian
  • Re-vaccinate all cats that have not been vaccinated in the last 14 days
  • Supportive care (wiping away discharges, syringe feeding, use of vaporizers, keeping warm etc.)

Monitoring:

  • ACA, RVT or senior animal care member is responsible for daily monitoring and proper documentation
  • The Animal Centre Manager, RVT or senior animal care member is responsible for scheduling veterinary rechecks

Recovery/Treatment Failure:

  • To be determined by the supervising veterinarian.

Adoption:

  • Recovered cats will be placed back up for adoption after they have been successfully isolated for 2 weeks
  • Exposed cats will be placed up for adoption after being successfully quarantined for 2 weeks
  • Continue vaccinating kittens following the normal vaccination schedule

Documentation:

  • All animal centres are required to provide pertinent information as per the Ontario SPCA Adoption Sharing and Caring Policy

References: Koret Centre, Shelter Medicine – UC Davis (http://www.sheltermedicine.com/library/resources/feline-infectious-respiratory-disease-aka-uri)